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Oncology

Oncology

When we see something special in oncology research, we will go to the ends of the earth to get it done.

Craig Tendler, M.D

VICE PRESIDENT JANSSEN, LATE DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL MEDICAL
AFFAIRS

INTRODUCTION

Cancer claims over seven million lives every year and the number continues to rise. Deaths are estimated to reach 12 million by 2030. At Janssen we aim to fundamentally alter the way cancer is understood, diagnosed and managed. We’re committed to delivering new, transformational medicines and we’re determined to redefine the standard of care.

Our discoveries have produced new therapeutic options that are already helping to prolong life in the following types of cancer:

Prostate Cancer

What is prostate cancer?

Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Prostate cancer often has no early symptoms. Advanced prostate cancer can cause men to urinate more often or have a weaker flow of urine, but these symptoms can also be caused by benign prostate conditions.

How common is it?

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men.

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by prostate cancer:

  • Weak or interrupted ("stop-and-go") flow of urine.
  • Sudden urge to urinate.
  • Frequent urination (especially at night).
  • Trouble starting the flow of urine.
  • Trouble emptying the bladder completely.
  • Pain or burning while urinating.
  • Blood in the urine or semen.
  • A pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn't go away.
  • Shortness of breath, feeling very tired, fast heartbeat, dizziness, or pale skin caused by anemia.

It is important to note that other conditions may cause the same symptoms.

For more information on prostate cancer, please click on the following link:

www.here4you.co.za

Multiple Myeloma

What is multiple myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is a haematological cancer that affects plasma cells which are found in the bone marrow. Plasma cells are part of your body's immune system responsible for the manufacture of antibodies to help fight off infections.

What are the symptoms of multiple myeloma?

Symptoms may be absent during the early stages of multiple myeloma but as the cancer progresses the following symptoms may become apparent:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Bone pain and weakness
  • Confusion
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness
  • More thirst
  • Infections
  • Bruising or purple-colored rash
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Weight loss
Breast Cancer

What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is a malignancy that develops from breast tissue. The first sign of breast cancer is most commonly a breast lump or an abnormal mammogram.

What are the symptoms of breast cancer?

In its early stages, breast cancer usually has no symptoms. As a tumor develops, the following signs may become apparent:

  • A lump in the breast or underarm that persists after your menstrual cycle. This is often the first apparent symptom of breast cancer. Lumps associated with breast cancer are usually painless, although some may cause a prickly sensation. Lumps are usually visible on a mammogram long before they can be seen or felt.
  • Swelling in the armpit.
  • Pain or tenderness in the breast. Although lumps are usually painless, pain or tenderness can be a sign of breast cancer.
  • A noticeable flattening or indentation on the breast, which may indicate a tumor that cannot be seen or felt.
  • Any change in the size, contour, texture, or temperature of the breast. A reddish, pitted surface like the skin of an orange could be a sign of advanced breast cancer.
  • A change in the nipple, such as a nipple retraction, dimpling, itching, a burning sensation, or ulceration. A scaly rash of the nipple is symptomatic of Paget's disease, which may be associated with an underlying breast cancer.
  • Unusual discharge from the nipple that may be clear, bloody, or another color. It's usually caused by benign conditions but could be due to cancer in some cases.
  • A marble-like area under the skin.
  • An area that is distinctly different from any other area on either breast.
Ovarian Cancer

What is ovarian cancer?

Ovarian cancer develops when abnormal cells grow in one or both of the ovaries.

What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?

Symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:

  • Recent, frequent bloating.
  • Pain in the belly or pelvis.
  • Trouble eating, or feeling full quickly.
  • Urinary problems, such as an urgent need to urinate or urinating more often than usual.

It is important to note that the latter symptoms may be common in women who do not have ovarian cancer.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

What is soft tissue sarcoma?

Adult soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the soft tissues of the body.

The soft tissues of the body include the muscles, tendons (bands of fiber that connect muscles to bones), fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissues around joints. Adult soft tissue sarcomas can form almost anywhere in the body, but are most common in the head, neck, arms, legs, trunk, and abdomen.

There are many types of soft tissue sarcoma.

Chemotherapy-Related Anaemia

What is chemotherapy-related anaemia?

If the number of red blood cells is low, tissues in the body do not get enough oxygen to function properly. This is known as anemia. Chemotherapy can lower the number of red blood cells, causing anemia, which in turn can cause symptoms such as s fatigue, dizziness, and shortness of breath.