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Neuroscience

Neuroscience
Introduction

Janssen’s history is intimately linked to neuroscience. The first medication developed by our founder, Dr Paul Janssen, was for the treatment of schizophrenia. This set us on the path of discovery and development of a comprehensive portfolio of medications to treat a wide variety of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and pain.

But the science is only part of the story. Our commitment to transforming patients’ lives extends beyond the medicine. That’s why we’re continuously collaborating with healthcare professionals, researchers, community organizations and care givers to improve outcomes for people living with serious mental illness.

Our Neuroscience and Pain focus includes:

Mental health illnesses are one of the most significant healthcare disease burdens in high income countries, and are expected to grow substantially in other regions of the world as the standard of living increases. By 2030, the World Health Organisation estimates that depression will be the leading cause of the global disease burden. Three quarters of patients with mental disorders receive no treatment. We are continuously striving to change this.

Our mission is to transform individual lives affected by disorders of the central nervous system, and to raise the global standard of pain relief. With core strength and infrastructure in discovery, development, and outcomes research, we continue to build on our expertise through internal research and external collaborations.

Our scientific knowledge is growing.

Neuroscience

Schizophrenia

Approximately one per cent of the population is affected by schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is characterized by two distinct sets of symptoms, positive symptoms and negative symptoms. These can include false beliefs, confused thinking, hallucinations, reduced social engagement and affective symptoms. The first episode usually occurs in late teens to early twenties in men, and late twenties in females.

You can find information about schizophrenia on www.psychiatry24x7.com

Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depression, is characterized by periods of mania, and periods of depression. Mania encompasses an elevated or irritable mood, during which the patient experiences a decreased need for sleep, grandiose ideas and reckless behaviour, such as sexual promiscuity, spending, gambling and using alcohol and drugs. Their speech is usually pressured and they experience flight of ideas.

Depression manifests itself as having an extremely negative outlook on life, suicidal ideation, change in sleep patterns, change in appetite and feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness.  There are periods of normal mood in between manic and depressive episodes.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder characterized by three core symptoms:

It is a chronic, persistent and ongoing disorder and is experienced in children, adolescents and adults.  ADHD is the most common psychiatric disorder among children and is highly hereditary. Approximately 4-5% of children have ADHD, which makes it the most common childhood mental disorder. Up to two thirds of these patients will continue to have symptoms into adulthood.

You can find more information on ADHD at www.MyADHD.co.za or follow us on FaceBook https://www.facebook.com/myadhdSA/

Inattention
Inattention speaks to difficulty paying attention and listening when spoken to, as well as being easily distracted and forgetful in daily activities. Not following through on instructions and not finishing schoolwork, work projects or housework are also indicative of inattentiveness.

Hyperactivity
Hyperactivity is most often seen in general fidgety behaviour – not being able to sit still or sit in one place for an extended period of time. This might also present as rambunctious behaviour in inappropriate situations. Hyperactive individuals have trouble sitting quietly or entertaining themselves, and always seem to be ‘on the go’, often talking excessively. A kind of ‘inner restlessness’ might also be indicative of hyperactivity, with an inability to relax peacefully.

Impulsivity
Another key symptom of ADHD is impulsivity. Impulsive behaviours might be blurting out answers before questions are completed, and a lack of patience, often interrupting others and intruding on conversations. Impulsivity can also present as a fierce temper and engaging in risky activities.

Pain

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience, associated with actual, potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage.

Pain can be

  • Acute
  • Chronic or Mixed

Acute pain is temporarily related to injury and that resolves during the appropriate healing period. It often responds to treatment with analgesic medications and treatment of the precipitating cause (the IASP definition above relates to all types of pain).

Chronic pain has been recognized as that pain which persists past the normal time of healing. In practice this may be less than one month, or more often, more than six months.

Each individual learns the application of the word through experiences related to injury in early life.

Transparency

Patient education and support program:

The South African Federation for Mental Health (SAFMH) is a registered non-profit organization and aims to coordinate, monitor and promote services for persons with intellectual and psychosocial disabilities as well as promoting good mental health and wellbeing amongst the South African public.

The 5th Global Mental Health Summit creates an opportunity to acknowledge and value the voice of Mental Healthcare users and patients with lived experiences.

“By creating this level of awareness, they enable people to help themselves by knowing what is available in terms of medication and have greater support from their families and friends and the medical persons involved. The end goal is to have an impact on their quality of life, their future and to establish a well-supported network.”

Project description: Patient education and support program

Contract signed: 09 January 2018

City of organization: Randburg, South Africa

Web address of organization: www.safmh.org.za

Contribution made by Janssen:  R50 000.00